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FATF秘书长在“人工智能和区块链”峰会上的发言

2019-12-08 00:29 编辑:btc268.com 来源:区块链资讯

Speech by David Lewis

FATF Executive Secretary

AI & Blockchain Summit

Smart City Expo World Congress

Barcelona, 21 November 2019

金融行动特别工作组(FATF)秘书长大卫·刘易斯(David Lewis)于2019年11月21日在西班牙巴塞罗那举行的全球智慧城市博览会(SCEWC)“人工智能和区块链”峰会上的演讲。

Thank you for inviting me to speak to you today.

感谢你们邀请我今天在这里发言。

When people first meet me, they find out I work for the Financial Action Task Force, the FATF… and a few questions usually come up. Some people say to me:

当人们第一次见到我时,他们发现我在FATF工作……于是通常会提出一些问题。有的人说:

You must know a lot about money laundering… got any tips

“你一定知道很多关于洗钱的事情……有什么窍门吗?”

They are usually joking. I think. Tips is probably not the right word… but yes, I know a few things about money laundering.

我想他们通常是在开玩笑。窍门这个词可能不太合适……不过,我确实知道一些关于洗钱的事情。

Other people say:

别的人说:

The Financial Action Task Force, what’s that

“FATF,那是什么?”

The FATF is the global money laundering and terrorist financing watchdog. We set international standards for more than 200 countries and jurisdictions to help authorities go after the money that enables serious crime, corruption and terrorism. And countries that don’t comply with our rules are named and put on a blacklist, which can have serious economic consequences for the country concerned.

FATF是全球洗钱和恐怖融资监督组织。我们为200多个国家和司法管辖区制定了国际标准,帮助主管部门追查可能导致严重犯罪、腐败和恐怖主义的资金。不遵守FATF规则的国家会被列入黑名单,这会对有关国家造成严重的经济后果。

I’m sure everyone here knew that answer.

我相信在座的每一位都知道答案。

Stopping money laundering is not just about stopping some accountant from fixing the books.

制止洗钱不仅仅是为了阻止某些会计师篡改账目。

Stopping money laundering is about saving peoples’ lives. It’s about going after the money in people trafficking that sees hundreds of thousands of people being forced into prostitution and forced labour.

制止洗钱是为了挽救人们的生命。是为了追查与人口贩运有关的资金,防止成千上万的人被迫卖淫和强迫劳动。

Stopping money laundering is not just about getting banks to carry out extra due diligence checks on suspicious customers.

制止洗钱不仅仅是为了让银行对可疑客户进行额外的尽职调查。

It’s about stopping drug dealers from laundering their money which can be used to fuel gun crime, stabbings and murders.

制止洗钱是为了阻止毒贩清洗黑钱,防止这些钱被用于助长枪支犯罪、刺杀和谋杀。

Everyone here today, stopping money laundering is not just a box ticking exercise for your organisations.

今天,在座的每一位,制止洗钱不仅仅是你们所在组织的一项打勾练习。

Stopping money laundering is about helping people and creating a just society. It is about preventing corrupt politicians from using tax havens to plunder a country’s finances while the local population live in extreme poverty. It is about stopping exploitation.

制止洗钱是为了帮助人们建立社会公正。是为了防止腐败政客利用避税天堂来掠夺一国财政,而当地居民却生活在极度贫困之中。是为了消灭剥削。

So… for those of you who work in governments or the finance industry or tech or other industries… that are involved in implementing our standards…. Don’t think of this as just a technical exercise that you have to do to because the FATF tells you to do it.

所以……对于你们中的那些在政府、金融业、技术或其他行业工作的人来说……那些参与执行FATF标准的人……不要认为这只是FATF告诉你必须做的一项技术练习。

The FATF global standards are here, ultimately, to protect society.

FATF全球标准的最终目的是为了保护社会。

To stop the harm caused by serious crime… and you can be part of making a difference.

为了制止严重犯罪造成的伤害……你可以成为改变的一部分。

Digital ID

数字身份

As part of making that difference, today I want to focus on a new push by the Financial Action Task Force to ensure that our standards keep up to date with the latest technology. In particular, Digital ID.

作为改变的一部分,今天我想重点谈谈FATF为确保标准与最新技术保持同步而采取的新举措。特别是数字身份。

Digital identity is growing rapidly all over the world… and it can make a drastic difference to peoples’ lives.

数字身份正在全球范围内快速发展……它可以极大地改变人们的生活。

Ironically, a member of my staff who is leading this project could have possibly benefitted from some. She’s an Australian - born in India - trying to get married in France… and is currently facing major problems proving her identity. Neither the Australian or the Indian government will attest that her birth certificate is valid.

讽刺的是,我的一名牵头这个项目的员工可能会从中获益。她是澳大利亚人——在印度出生——试图在法国结婚……目前在证明自己身份方面正面临很大的问题。无论是澳大利亚政府还是印度政府都不会证明她的出生证明是有效的。

So this is just one example of how digital ID, if it was around decades ago, might have made a difference.

所以这只是数字身份可能会带来什么改变的一个例子,如果发生在几十年前的话。

The new technology involves everything from electronic ID cards to face, iris and fingerprint scans… and enables a person’s identity to be proved online.

这项新技术包罗万象,从电子身份证到人脸、虹膜和指纹扫描……可以在线验证个人身份。

It has the potential to revolutionise the way we interact with public institutions and the private sector.

它有可能彻底改变我们和公共机构及私营部门互动的方式。

Because the number of online transactions keeps growing, we need to have better ways of establishing our electronic identity.

由于在线交易的数量不断增长,我们需要有更好的方式来建立电子身份。

The UN and World Bank have already set goals to provide everyone on the planet with a legal identity by 2030 - for countries to build inclusive, trustworthy ID systems. This has meant that some developing countries are leapfrogging ahead and going straight to digital ID systems.

联合国和世界银行已经制定了到2030年前为地球上每一个人提供合法身份的目标——让各国建立普惠、可靠的身份系统。这意味着一些发展中国家正在实现跨越式发展,直接采用数字身份系统。

There are already numerous national electronic ID schemes being launched.

已经有许多国家开始启动电子身份计划。

India’s is the most famous. There have been significant challenges, but it’s Aadhaar national biometric ID scheme has enrolled more than a billion people - covering welfare, tax payments and access to social services.

其中最有名的是印度的例子。尽管面临巨大的挑战,但Aadhaar国家生物识别身份计划已经登记了超过10亿人——包括福利、纳税和社会服务。

ePassports are increasingly being used and digital driving licence projects are being pushed in the US, UK and Australia.

越来越多的人使用电子护照,美国、英国和澳大利亚也在推动数字驾照项目。

And some countries, like Estonia, are at the forefront of developments…. where citizens can vote online, get an online prescription from a doctor, pay taxes online and Estonia has even developed an e-residency programme.

一些国家,比如爱沙尼亚,正处于发展的前沿……公民可以在线投票,从医生那里获得在线处方,在线纳税,爱沙尼亚甚至开发了一个电子居留权项目。

So the changes are big. Things that used to require queuing up for hours, and signing and producing lots of paperwork, are now being handled on someone’s mobile phone.

所以变化很大。过去需要排几个小时的队,以及签署和制作大量文件的事情,现在可以通过手机来处理。

And as the technology becomes more sophisticated and efficient, it is likely to gain more mainstream appeal as we move towards more mobile societies.

随着技术变得更加先进和高效,数字身份可能会获得更多主流吸引力,因为我们正在向更加移动化的社会迈进。

So as people become more mobile and use their mobiles more - the implications for digital ID are profound.

所以随着人们越来越移动化,越来越多地使用手机——这对数字身份的影响是深远的。

And this will present challenges to governments and companies.

这将给政府和公司带来挑战。

FATF BEST PRACTICES ON DIGITAL ID

FATF关于数字身份的最佳实践

The way to ensure these systems are safe and secure, is for close collaboration between the financial sector, public authorities and digital firms - to ensure the implementation of best practices.

确保这些系统安全可靠的方法是使金融行业、公共机关和数字公司之间紧密协作——确保最佳实践得以执行。

That’s where the Financial Action Task Force comes in.

这正是FATF要发挥作用的领域。

We are developing guidance to clarify how digital ID systems can be used by banks and others to identify and verify a person’s identity. This is a critical part of preventing money laundering and terrorist financing - to know who you are dealing with or providing services to.

我们正在制定指引以澄清银行及其他机构如何使用数字身份系统来识别与核实个人身份。这是防止洗钱和恐怖融资的关键部分——了解你正在和谁进行交易或向谁提供服务。

There are a number of elements to this.

这涉及到许多要素。

One is focusing on helping banks use digital ID for existing and new customers.

首先关注的是帮助银行为存量客户和新客户使用数字身份。

We don’t want rules and regulations to hold back banks from embracing technological change, and end up with a reliance on old paper-based systems.

我们不希望规章制度阻碍银行拥抱技术变革,并最终导致银行依赖旧的纸质系统。

If we can ensure digital ID systems are safe - with clear and effective customer due diligence in place - then we want people to be able to use them.

如果我们可以确保数字身份系统的安全性——在采取明确而有效的客户尽职调查措施的情况下——那么我们希望人们能够使用它们。

Which is why we want banks and other financial institutions to take a risk-based approach to digital ID.

这就是为什么我们希望银行及其他金融机构对数字身份采用风险为本的方法。

The FATF is currently consulting the private sector to get their opinions on the best ways to ensure digital ID is safe - to combat the specific money laundering and terrorist financing risks.

FATF目前正在与私营部门磋商,就确保数字身份安全性的最佳方式征求他们的意见——以打击特定洗钱和恐怖融资风险。

We are asking for authorities, banks and crypto currency firms to think about the risks involved… about what data is captured and how is it verified… what kinds of records are kept and so on. We are also consulting them on the implementation of know your customer rules and anti-fraud measures.

我们正在要求主管部门、银行和加密货币公司考虑所涉及的风险……关于获取哪些数据及如何验证这些数据……保存哪些类型的记录等等。我们还在就执行“了解您的客户”规则及反欺诈措施与他们磋商。

All these things are needed to make digital ID systems as secure as possible - to help fight against money laundering and terrorist financing.

所有这些都是使数字身份系统尽可能安全的必要条件——以帮助打击洗钱和恐怖融资。

For example, it is not uncommon to see people establish accounts with a real identity and then sell or give this identity to an organised crime group which uses it to launder funds.

例如,人们用真实身份开立账户并将这个身份出售或交给一个有组织犯罪集团用于洗钱的情况并不少见。

Digital ID could help check that the person using the account is the same person that opened it.

数字身份可以帮助检查账户使用人是否与账户开立人为同一人。

So a lot of possibilities.

所以有很多可能性。

The second thing we are focusing on is financial inclusion.

我们其次关注的是普惠金融。

According to the World Bank, around one billion people don’t have any official proof of identity, any relevant paper ID…

世界银行提供的数据显示,大约有10亿人无任何官方身份证明,无任何相关纸质证件……

In low-income countries, one in two women do not have identification.

在低收入国家,有二分之一的女性无身份证明。

This lack of documentation is a critical barrier to accessing services and banks…

缺乏证明文件是获取银行服务的一个关键障碍……

It means people can’t use financial services and excludes them from economic opportunities, even limiting their political and social rights. It also increases potential money laundering risks as people then are operating in a black market.

这意味着人们无法使用金融服务,被排除在经济机会之外,甚至被限制了政治和社会权利。这也增加了潜在洗钱风险,因为人们会转向黑市办理业务。

So secure, protected Digital ID systems are crucial. They can potentially help people engage with their country’s legitimate economy and not the black economy.

所以安全、受保护的数字身份系统至关重要。它们能够帮助人们参与本国的合法经济,而非黑市经济。

For example, Digital ID can make it easier for people to open a bank account, as they would not always rely on strict paper documentation requirements.

例如,数字身份可以使开立银行账户更加容易,因为不会总是依赖严格的纸质证明文件要求。

And practically, Digital ID could mean new bank customers are brought on board remotely… and make the process cheaper. There are a lot of potential benefits.

实际上,数字身份意味着银行可以为新客户远程开户……从而降低成本。有很多潜在好处。

Thirdly, digital ID presents an opportunity to put in place good working practices of collaboration and cooperation between authorities, banks, the tech and private sector - and between governments and the FATF - to work together to create a safer financial system.

第三,数字身份为主管部门、银行、技术和私营部门之间——以及政府和FATF之间——建立协同与合作的良好工作方式,共同创造一个更加安全的金融体系带来了机遇。

Some people think digital ID schemes are only provided for by governments. But the private sector is getting increasingly involved - and what is important is ensuring reliable, independent systems.

有的人认为,只由政府在提供数字身份计划。但私营部门正越来越多地参与进来——重要的是确保系统的可靠、独立。

Those systems would help combat money laundering.

这些系统将有助于打击洗钱。

It is very hard to estimate how much money is laundered around the world - but various reports and investigations put the figure at somewhere between the many hundreds of billions of US dollars and trillions of dollars every year.

很难估计全世界到底有多少黑钱被洗白——但各种报告和调查显示,这一数字介于每年数千亿到数万亿美元之间。

Money laundering allows drug dealers, arms traffickers, corrupt politicians - you name it - to conceal their dirty cash.

洗钱使毒贩、军火贩子、腐败政客——凡是你能想到的——得以隐藏他们的脏钱。

So cooperation between governments, banks and the private sector is crucial to creating a more secure financial system.

所以政府、银行和私营部门之间的合作对于创造一个更加安全的金融体系来说至关重要。

At the moment, many countries are playing by their own digital ID rules.

目前,许多国家都制定了本国的数字身份规则。

But what we are seeing develop is a growing, global digital ID world… and the FATF global standards can help collaboration between major players. We have been very proactive in engaging with digital ID experts and the private sector to develop something that can work.

但我们看到的是一个不断增长的全球性的数字身份世界……FATF全球标准有助于主要参与者之间的协作。我们一直在非常积极主动地参与数字身份专家和私营部门开发可行方案的工作。

And we are asking for feedback to help us create the best and most effective standards.

我们正在寻求反馈,以帮助我们制定最佳和最有效的标准。

RISKS

风险

Finally, I want to talk to you about risks.

最后,我想和你们谈谈风险。

Traditional forms of identification obviously carry well-known risks. But when discussing the possibilities of Digital ID’s we also have to look at the dangers… and for that matter, learn a whole new vocabulary.

传统的身份证明方式显然带有众所周知的风险。但在讨论数字身份的可能性时,我们也必须考虑到它的危险性……因此,需要学习一套全新的词汇。

Phishing. Cyber attacks. Man in the middle attacks. Synthetic identities. Credential stuffing. These are just some of the terms used. Do you know all of them

网络钓鱼。网络攻击。中间人攻击。合成身份。撞库。这些只是其中一部分术语。你们全都认识吗?

The fact is that criminals are becoming more technologically sophisticated.

事实上,犯罪分子的技术正变得越来越先进。

That’s why a key aim of our guidance is to increase the broader awareness of what digital ID is and what it involves, to understand the risks.

这就是为什么FATF指引的一个关键目标是提高公众对数字身份的定义及范围的认识,从而理解风险。

The risks can occur at different stages.

风险可能发生在不同阶段。

Criminals can try to impersonate another person by stealing their identity. They can create a ‘synthetic identity’ by mashing together real and fake information.

犯罪分子可以通过盗用他人身份来冒充他人。他们可以通过将真实和虚假信息混在一起来创造一个“合成身份”。

Large databases could also lead to opportunities for fraud and identity theft. And sophisticated attacks online could target many people in one go.

大型数据库也可能导致欺诈和身份盗窃。而复杂的网络攻击可以一次攻击许多目标。

Another risk is the period when an identity is being authenticated. Stolen, weak or default passwords are behind more than 80 percent of data breaches.

另一个风险是在身份认证时。超过80%的数据泄露是由于密码被盗、密码强度太弱或未更改默认密码造成的。

There are going to be risks in the future that we don’t even know about. I’m not going to go all Donald Rumsfeld known unknowns on you - but you get my point. Systems are constantly developing - and criminals will seek to exploit them in new ways.

我们不知道未来会有什么风险。我不会把所有唐纳德·拉姆斯菲尔德(Donald Rumsfeld,美国前国防部长)已知的未知的事情都告诉你——但你懂的。系统在不断发展——犯罪分子会寻求新的方式来利用它们。

The FATF Guidance provides advice on how to assess and manage these risks. And sets out an overall framework that focuses not only on Digital ID, but also issues such as data protection, resourcing, maintenance and much more.

FATF指引就如何评估和管理这些风险提供了建议,并提出一个总体框架,该框架不仅关注数字身份,还关注数据保护、资源配置、维护等问题。

We want to help the world get ready for the technological change that is already underway and changing the financial landscape fast. With common sense, cooperation and good will we can take important steps to take action on money laundering and terrorist financing.

我们希望帮助世界各国为已经开始并正在迅速改变金融格局的技术变革做好准备。有了常识、合作和善意,我们就可以采取重要措施打击洗钱和恐怖融资。

Stakeholders have until the end of the month of provide us with feedback.

请利益相关方务必在11月底前向我们提供反馈。

We aim to finalise the guidance in 2020.

我们的目标是在2020年完成指引。

关键词:比特币新闻 币牛牛

转载自比特币新闻网(www.btc268.com),提供比特币行情走势分析与数字货币投资炒币最新消息。

原文标题:FATF秘书长在“人工智能和区块链”峰会上的发言

原文地址:http://www.btc268.com/qkl/js/18205.html

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